This item has original tags and shows no visible signs of wear.
Dramatic cutouts and a metallic stiletto heel extend the scene-stealing glamour of an open-toe Italian pump.
o 3 1/2" heel; 100mm pitch.
o Leather and suede upper/leather lining and sole.
o By Jimmy Choo; made in Italy.
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Many discussions about safety-net programs tend to focus on financial cliffs—how the impact of getting a raise or working additional hours may make participants ineligible for the very benefits they need to move into economic stability. Marriage is rarely part of this discussion, even though numerous studies show marriage is an important tool for moving families out of poverty.1 That marriage is often absent from these discussions is especially ironic, since the promotion of family stability—by encouraging marriage and discouraging nonmarital births—was among the chief policy rationales for welfare reform in 1996.
After reviewing research stressing the importance of eliminating marriage penalties, we developed and successfully advocated for legislation that would create a “honeymoon” period for newly-married couples receiving assistance through Minnesota’s version of Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF). The legislation (HF 1453/SF 1165) received strong bipartisan support and was enacted by a Republican Legislature and Democratic Governor Mark Dayton in 2017. In our view, it represents the bi-partisan possibilities of enacting legislation based on the consensus that marriage is a vital tool for reducing poverty and fostering child well-being.
Crafting a Policy
Minnesota’s version of TANF is the Minnesota Family Investment Program (MFIP), which provides work support and cash assistance for children and their parents, who are often low wage workers between jobs. There has been no increase in the amount of the cash benefit to participants in over 30 years. Both of our organizations were involved in advocating for an increase.
As we talked with people of faith across our state, especially religious leaders, we kept hearing about couples who wanted to be married but couldn’t afford to make this decision because adding another adult to the family’s income would put them over the poverty threshold used to determine eligibility.2 The concerns were often strongest for couples expecting a baby who wished to be married before birth of their child. Unfortunately, marriage would result in a loss of benefits at the exact time the new mother would be unable to work. We sought to address this marriage disincentive.
Framing the Legislation
In our experience, all elected officials want to help families and individuals in poverty. They desire all our citizens to be economically stable and prosperous, but they often have different ideas about how to make that happen. Our goal was to frame our bill in a way that showed a commitment to helping children live in stable, secure homes that lawmakers from both parties could champion.
To that end, we drafted a bill to create an 18-month window after marriage in which a new spouse’s income would not count when determining eligibility—a “honeymoon” period. This income disregard was modeled on an existing statute that addressed child support for children on MFIP. Due to constitutional concerns related to marriage incentive programs, we consciously chose to structure the bill in a way that would allow couples to choose to marry rather than reward those who married.
Making the Pitch
In seeking bill sponsors (and later other supporters), we spoke about the benefits of marriage to children and the challenges to couples that wanted to marry but knew the very real financial impact this would have on their families. We shared that the federal TANF Program, which is used to fund MFIP, specifically lists two marriage-related goals: to promote marriage and to reduce the number of children born out of wedlock.
We provided data from a joint American Enterprise Institute/Los Angeles Times study3 in which people in poverty were asked: “How often do you think unmarried adults chose not to get married to avoid losing welfare benefits?” Twenty-four percent of participants answered, “almost always,” and an additional 23% answered, “often.”
We also gave legislators highlighted copies of a 2009 study of the federal TANF program that showed participation in the TANF program had a negative effect on the probability of marriage, an effect that disappeared once participants moved off the program.4
In building strong bipartisan support for the legislation, we addressed some concerns along the way. For example, we made it clear that we were not judging single parents but instead creating a viable option for couples who wanted to be married. We also clarified that nothing in the bill would trap a parent in a relationship that was dangerous for the parent or children.
Our House author identified a concern we hadn’t anticipated—should the state allow continued participation in the MFIP program if a participant marries a middle or upper-class individual? We addressed this by amending the bill to include a cap on the income disregard, set at 275% of the Federal Poverty Guidelines, the standard used to determine whether pregnant women and children are eligible for Medicaid.
In both chambers, the bill passed unanimously and was included in an omnibus bill signed by our Governor. Ultimately, the bill had to be amended to provide an income disregard for 12 months instead of the original 18. This change was unfortunate given that, ideally, this honeymoon period would last two or three years. Despite this amendment, the new law will likely make a significant impact by removing an obstacle to marriage for low-income households in our state.Christian Louboutin Black Patent Simple 85 Pumps Size US 10 Regular (M, B)Christian Louboutin Viennana 100mm Nude Pumps Size US 8,Christian Louboutin Pk 20 Nude Lady Peep Sling 150 Patent Calf Platforms Size EU 37.5 (Approx. US 7.5) Regular (M, B),Saint Laurent Blush Leather Janis Pumps Size US 9 Regular (M, B),Giuseppe Zanotti Red Poppy Patent 38.5 Eur Pumps Size US 8 Regular (M, B),Christian Louboutin Light Pink Lady Peep Platforms Size US 8.5 Regular (M, B),Christian Louboutin Oxblood 4621 Decollete 868 100 Jazz Calf Pumps Size US 7 Regular (M, B)Giuseppe Zanotti * Black Suede Boots/Booties Size US 12 Regular (M, B)Tom Ford Black Leather Chunky Heel Platform Ankle Strap Sandals Size EU 40.5 (Approx. US 10.5) Regular (M, B),Christian Louboutin Like New Highness 160mm Pumps Size US 10,Christian Louboutin Gold Beige Very Rete 120 Nude Mesh Peep Toe Heels A275 Platforms Size EU 40 (Approx. US 10) Regular (M, B)Christian Louboutin Tan Leopard 'iriza' Calf Hair D'orsay Pumps Size US 8 Regular (M, B)DSquared Black Women's Slingback Platform Sandals Size US 8.5 Regular (M, B),Christian Louboutin Red Suede Olavague 100mm Flame Wave Point Sz. Euro Pumps Size EU 36 (Approx. US 6) Regular (M, B),Christian Louboutin Black Maggie Platform Pumps Size EU 39 (Approx. US 9) Regular (M, B),Fusia Pink Pumps Size US 9 Regular (M, B),Dior Black 'biker' 39 1/2 Eu Boots/Booties Size US 9.5 Regular (M, B),Manolo Blahnik Black Tian Pumps Size US 5 Regular (M, B),Giuseppe Zanotti Purple Cut-out Sandal Boots/Booties Size US 7.5 Regular (M, B),Christian Louboutin Black Patent No Prive 85 Sling Backs Pumps Size US 10 Regular (M, B)Burberry Multicolor New Parkeston Espadrille Platform Sandals Size US 7 Regular (M, B),Lanvin Black Textured Patent Leather Pumps Size EU 36.5 (Approx. US 6.5) Regular (M, B)Jimmy Choo Black New Shearling Biker Boots/Booties Size US 5,Christian Louboutin Sharptstagram 100mm Black Patent Leather 38.5 Pumps Size US 8.5 Regular (M, B),Sophia Webster Red New Mitsy Polka Dot Tulle Velvet Trimmed Leather Sandals Size EU 36 (Approx. US 6) Regular (M, B),Christian Louboutin Black Lady Paige Platform Eu 39.5 Pumps Size US 8.5,Dries van Noten White Velvet with Zip Boots/Booties Size EU 39 (Approx. US 9) Regular (M, B),Roberto Cavalli Black Tiger Cuff Snake-embossed Leather Sandals Size EU 37.5 (Approx. US 7.5) Regular (M, B)Mezlan Black Loafers-genuine Crocodile Formal Shoes Size US 13 Regular (M, B),Valentino White Garavani Two-tone Metallic Leather Sneakers Sneakers Size EU 38 (Approx. US 8) Regular (M, B),
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