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Dramatic cutouts and a metallic stiletto heel extend the scene-stealing glamour of an open-toe Italian pump.
o 3 1/2" heel; 100mm pitch.
o Leather and suede upper/leather lining and sole.
o By Jimmy Choo; made in Italy.
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Many discussions about safety-net programs tend to focus on financial cliffs—how the impact of getting a raise or working additional hours may make participants ineligible for the very benefits they need to move into economic stability. Marriage is rarely part of this discussion, even though numerous studies show marriage is an important tool for moving families out of poverty.1 That marriage is often absent from these discussions is especially ironic, since the promotion of family stability—by encouraging marriage and discouraging nonmarital births—was among the chief policy rationales for welfare reform in 1996.
After reviewing research stressing the importance of eliminating marriage penalties, we developed and successfully advocated for legislation that would create a “honeymoon” period for newly-married couples receiving assistance through Minnesota’s version of Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF). The legislation (HF 1453/SF 1165) received strong bipartisan support and was enacted by a Republican Legislature and Democratic Governor Mark Dayton in 2017. In our view, it represents the bi-partisan possibilities of enacting legislation based on the consensus that marriage is a vital tool for reducing poverty and fostering child well-being.
Crafting a Policy
Minnesota’s version of TANF is the Minnesota Family Investment Program (MFIP), which provides work support and cash assistance for children and their parents, who are often low wage workers between jobs. There has been no increase in the amount of the cash benefit to participants in over 30 years. Both of our organizations were involved in advocating for an increase.
As we talked with people of faith across our state, especially religious leaders, we kept hearing about couples who wanted to be married but couldn’t afford to make this decision because adding another adult to the family’s income would put them over the poverty threshold used to determine eligibility.2 The concerns were often strongest for couples expecting a baby who wished to be married before birth of their child. Unfortunately, marriage would result in a loss of benefits at the exact time the new mother would be unable to work. We sought to address this marriage disincentive.
Framing the Legislation
In our experience, all elected officials want to help families and individuals in poverty. They desire all our citizens to be economically stable and prosperous, but they often have different ideas about how to make that happen. Our goal was to frame our bill in a way that showed a commitment to helping children live in stable, secure homes that lawmakers from both parties could champion.
To that end, we drafted a bill to create an 18-month window after marriage in which a new spouse’s income would not count when determining eligibility—a “honeymoon” period. This income disregard was modeled on an existing statute that addressed child support for children on MFIP. Due to constitutional concerns related to marriage incentive programs, we consciously chose to structure the bill in a way that would allow couples to choose to marry rather than reward those who married.
Making the Pitch
In seeking bill sponsors (and later other supporters), we spoke about the benefits of marriage to children and the challenges to couples that wanted to marry but knew the very real financial impact this would have on their families. We shared that the federal TANF Program, which is used to fund MFIP, specifically lists two marriage-related goals: to promote marriage and to reduce the number of children born out of wedlock.
We provided data from a joint American Enterprise Institute/Los Angeles Times study3 in which people in poverty were asked: “How often do you think unmarried adults chose not to get married to avoid losing welfare benefits?” Twenty-four percent of participants answered, “almost always,” and an additional 23% answered, “often.”
We also gave legislators highlighted copies of a 2009 study of the federal TANF program that showed participation in the TANF program had a negative effect on the probability of marriage, an effect that disappeared once participants moved off the program.4
In building strong bipartisan support for the legislation, we addressed some concerns along the way. For example, we made it clear that we were not judging single parents but instead creating a viable option for couples who wanted to be married. We also clarified that nothing in the bill would trap a parent in a relationship that was dangerous for the parent or children.
Our House author identified a concern we hadn’t anticipated—should the state allow continued participation in the MFIP program if a participant marries a middle or upper-class individual? We addressed this by amending the bill to include a cap on the income disregard, set at 275% of the Federal Poverty Guidelines, the standard used to determine whether pregnant women and children are eligible for Medicaid.
In both chambers, the bill passed unanimously and was included in an omnibus bill signed by our Governor. Ultimately, the bill had to be amended to provide an income disregard for 12 months instead of the original 18. This change was unfortunate given that, ideally, this honeymoon period would last two or three years. Despite this amendment, the new law will likely make a significant impact by removing an obstacle to marriage for low-income households in our state.Valentino Emerald Green Rockrunner Sneakers Size US 6 Regular (M, B),Christian Louboutin Black Tsarou 100 Veau Velours Sandals Size EU 39 (Approx. US 9) Regular (M, B),Stuart Weitzman Black 5050 Med Heel Leather Boots/Booties Size US 6 Regular (M, B),Giuseppe Zanotti Nude Andrea Mules/Slides Size US 9 Regular (M, B),Christian Louboutin Beige Decollete 554 100mm Patent Pumps Size EU 40 (Approx. US 10) Regular (M, B),Christian Louboutin Nude Merci Allen 100 Patent Heels A437 Pumps Size EU 37.5 (Approx. US 7.5) Regular (M, B),Santoni 'fitz' Burnished Cap Toe Oxford Brown D - Sandals Size US 9 Wide (C, D),Prada Black/ Gold Wedges Size US 6.5 Regular (M, B),Christian Louboutin Black Suede Belle Zeppa 100 Wedges Boots/Booties Size US 6 Regular (M, B),Jimmy Choo Nude Collar Creame Multistrap Platform Snakeskin Sandals Size US 8 Regular (M, B)Charlotte Olympia Multi / Natural Platforms Size US 8 Regular (M, B),Christian Louboutin White Pumps Size US 8.5 Regular (M, B),Christian Louboutin Black The New Simple Pumps Size US 9 Regular (M, B)Giuseppe Zanotti Multi-color Design Women's Pony Hair Buckle Up Boots/Booties Size US 7 Regular (M, B),Fendi Burgundy Bnwt Sandals Size US 7.5 Regular (M, B),Manolo Blahnik Cream Multi Gelle Pumps Size US 12 Regular (M, B),Christian Louboutin Nude Stylish Exagona Platform Crisscross Heels 39 Pumps Size US 8.5,Valentino Red Ly2s0723 Sneakers Size US 8 Regular (M, B),Aquazzura Brown Pair Of Cowboy Boots/Booties Size US 5 Regular (M, B),Christian Louboutin Rose Paris Pink Suede Ron Ron Pumps Size US 8 Regular (M, B),Christian Louboutin Black Degraspike 120 Silver Spiked Kid Leather Pumps Size US 7,Fendi Burgundy Bnwt Sandals Size US 7.5 Regular (M, B)Giuseppe Zanotti Electric Blue Embossed Leather High-top Boots/Booties Size US 9.5,Christian Louboutin Fuschia Pumps Size US 7 Regular (M, B)Christian Louboutin Navy Lougalia Espadrille Flats Size US 7 Regular (M, B),Christian Louboutin Red Crepe Satin Lola Noeud 100 Pumps Size EU 40.5 (Approx. US 10.5) Regular (M, B),Dolce&Gabbana Print Multicolor Espadrille Mules/Slides Flats Size EU 36 (Approx. US 6) Wide (C, D),Christian Louboutin Gold Lady Peep 140 Beige / Golden Glitter Euro 36.5 /Us Pumps Size US 6.5,Christian Louboutin Black Haute Retenue Platform Sandals Size US 8.5 Regular (M, B),Christian Louboutin Shocking Pink New Rivierina Neon Gold 100 Heels 37.5 610 Pumps Size US 7.5 Regular (M, B)
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