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Many discussions about safety-net programs tend to focus on financial cliffs—how the impact of getting a raise or working additional hours may make participants ineligible for the very benefits they need to move into economic stability. Marriage is rarely part of this discussion, even though numerous studies show marriage is an important tool for moving families out of poverty.1 That marriage is often absent from these discussions is especially ironic, since the promotion of family stability—by encouraging marriage and discouraging nonmarital births—was among the chief policy rationales for welfare reform in 1996.
After reviewing research stressing the importance of eliminating marriage penalties, we developed and successfully advocated for legislation that would create a “honeymoon” period for newly-married couples receiving assistance through Minnesota’s version of Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF). The legislation (HF 1453/SF 1165) received strong bipartisan support and was enacted by a Republican Legislature and Democratic Governor Mark Dayton in 2017. In our view, it represents the bi-partisan possibilities of enacting legislation based on the consensus that marriage is a vital tool for reducing poverty and fostering child well-being.
Crafting a Policy
Minnesota’s version of TANF is the Minnesota Family Investment Program (MFIP), which provides work support and cash assistance for children and their parents, who are often low wage workers between jobs. There has been no increase in the amount of the cash benefit to participants in over 30 years. Both of our organizations were involved in advocating for an increase.
As we talked with people of faith across our state, especially religious leaders, we kept hearing about couples who wanted to be married but couldn’t afford to make this decision because adding another adult to the family’s income would put them over the poverty threshold used to determine eligibility.2 The concerns were often strongest for couples expecting a baby who wished to be married before birth of their child. Unfortunately, marriage would result in a loss of benefits at the exact time the new mother would be unable to work. We sought to address this marriage disincentive.
Framing the Legislation
In our experience, all elected officials want to help families and individuals in poverty. They desire all our citizens to be economically stable and prosperous, but they often have different ideas about how to make that happen. Our goal was to frame our bill in a way that showed a commitment to helping children live in stable, secure homes that lawmakers from both parties could champion.
To that end, we drafted a bill to create an 18-month window after marriage in which a new spouse’s income would not count when determining eligibility—a “honeymoon” period. This income disregard was modeled on an existing statute that addressed child support for children on MFIP. Due to constitutional concerns related to marriage incentive programs, we consciously chose to structure the bill in a way that would allow couples to choose to marry rather than reward those who married.
Making the Pitch
In seeking bill sponsors (and later other supporters), we spoke about the benefits of marriage to children and the challenges to couples that wanted to marry but knew the very real financial impact this would have on their families. We shared that the federal TANF Program, which is used to fund MFIP, specifically lists two marriage-related goals: to promote marriage and to reduce the number of children born out of wedlock.
We provided data from a joint American Enterprise Institute/Los Angeles Times study3 in which people in poverty were asked: “How often do you think unmarried adults chose not to get married to avoid losing welfare benefits?” Twenty-four percent of participants answered, “almost always,” and an additional 23% answered, “often.”
We also gave legislators highlighted copies of a 2009 study of the federal TANF program that showed participation in the TANF program had a negative effect on the probability of marriage, an effect that disappeared once participants moved off the program.4
In building strong bipartisan support for the legislation, we addressed some concerns along the way. For example, we made it clear that we were not judging single parents but instead creating a viable option for couples who wanted to be married. We also clarified that nothing in the bill would trap a parent in a relationship that was dangerous for the parent or children.
Our House author identified a concern we hadn’t anticipated—should the state allow continued participation in the MFIP program if a participant marries a middle or upper-class individual? We addressed this by amending the bill to include a cap on the income disregard, set at 275% of the Federal Poverty Guidelines, the standard used to determine whether pregnant women and children are eligible for Medicaid.
In both chambers, the bill passed unanimously and was included in an omnibus bill signed by our Governor. Ultimately, the bill had to be amended to provide an income disregard for 12 months instead of the original 18. This change was unfortunate given that, ideally, this honeymoon period would last two or three years. Despite this amendment, the new law will likely make a significant impact by removing an obstacle to marriage for low-income households in our state.Tory Burch Multicolor New Flip Flop Sandals Size US 10 Regular (M, B),Manolo Blahnik Capretto Blue Pamuk/Navy/105 Pumps Size US 8.5 Regular (M, B),Chloé Black Earnesto Tall Leather and Suede Boots/Booties Size US 6.5 Regular (M, B),Jimmy Choo Red Patient Leather Sandals Size US 9 Regular (M, B),Hunter Black Rain Boots/Booties Size US 8 Regular (M, B),Stuart Weitzman Black Patent Chain Platform 5.5) 484075 Pumps Size US 5.5 Regular (M, B)Cole Haan Cognac Brown Knee High Leather Platform High W/ Gold Buckles Boots/Booties Size US 7.5 Regular (M, B),Stuart Weitzman Black Allhyped Over The Knee Boots/Booties Size US 6.5 Regular (M, B)Christian Louboutin Black Medinana Tassel Suede Collapsible-heel Mule Flats Size EU 37 (Approx. US 7) Regular (M, B),Saint Laurent Black Ysl Pumps Size US 9 Regular (M, B),Burberry Nova Check and Black Platforms Size US 6.5 Regular (M, B),Tory Burch Black Caroline 2 Lancaster Suede Gold Reva Flats Size US 10.5 Regular (M, B)Tory Burch Brilliant Blue/ Navy Sea Blossom Flower Jelly Sandals Size US 9 Regular (M, B)Stuart Weitzman Cola Halftime Otk Boots/Booties Size US 10.5 Regular (M, B),Burberry House Check High Top Sneakers Size EU 43 (Approx. US 13) Regular (M, B),Tory Burch Black New Box Leather High Top Rosette Sneakers Flats Sneakers Size US 8.5 Regular (M, B),Tod's Black Pellame Leather Loafers Flats Size EU 40.5 (Approx. US 10.5) Regular (M, B),RED Valentino With Black Velvet Bow Leather Heels Boots/Booties Size US 7 Regular (M, B),Zara Silver Glitter Pumps Size EU 41 (Approx. US 11) Regular (M, B)Christian Louboutin Blue Almeria Leather Espadrille Wedge Heels Sandals Platforms Size EU 40 (Approx. US 10) Regular (M, B),Vince Camuto Pumice/Alabaster 'phalen' Pointed-toe Slip-on Sneaker Pumice/Alabaster Flats Size US 9 Regular (M, B),Jimmy Choo Nude Strappy Heels Sandals Size EU 37 (Approx. US 7) Regular (M, B),Tory Burch Black Flats Size US 8.5 Narrow (Aa, N),Christian Louboutin Black Leather Ares Espadrille Spike Flats Size US 8,Valentino Black Suade/Gold Studded Toe/Original Box Platform Ultra High Heel with Toe. Formal Shoes Size EU 38 (Approx. US 8) Regular (M, B),Tory Burch Beige Nude Logo Black Cap Toe Bloc-heel Pumps Size US 8 Regular (M, B)Stuart Weitzman Tan Pw77536 Platforms Size US 6.5 Regular (M, B),Vince Preston 3 Slip-on Sneakers. - 12 Sneakers Size EU 44 (Approx. US 14) Regular (M, B),Jimmy Choo Brown Animal Cheetah Satin Print Ankle Strap 39.5 Sandals Size US 9.5 Regular (M, B)Tory Burch Light Camel/Natural/Light Camel Alana Boots/Booties Size US 7 Regular (M, B)
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