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Many discussions about safety-net programs tend to focus on financial cliffs—how the impact of getting a raise or working additional hours may make participants ineligible for the very benefits they need to move into economic stability. Marriage is rarely part of this discussion, even though numerous studies show marriage is an important tool for moving families out of poverty.1 That marriage is often absent from these discussions is especially ironic, since the promotion of family stability—by encouraging marriage and discouraging nonmarital births—was among the chief policy rationales for welfare reform in 1996.
After reviewing research stressing the importance of eliminating marriage penalties, we developed and successfully advocated for legislation that would create a “honeymoon” period for newly-married couples receiving assistance through Minnesota’s version of Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF). The legislation (HF 1453/SF 1165) received strong bipartisan support and was enacted by a Republican Legislature and Democratic Governor Mark Dayton in 2017. In our view, it represents the bi-partisan possibilities of enacting legislation based on the consensus that marriage is a vital tool for reducing poverty and fostering child well-being.
Crafting a Policy
Minnesota’s version of TANF is the Minnesota Family Investment Program (MFIP), which provides work support and cash assistance for children and their parents, who are often low wage workers between jobs. There has been no increase in the amount of the cash benefit to participants in over 30 years. Both of our organizations were involved in advocating for an increase.
As we talked with people of faith across our state, especially religious leaders, we kept hearing about couples who wanted to be married but couldn’t afford to make this decision because adding another adult to the family’s income would put them over the poverty threshold used to determine eligibility.2 The concerns were often strongest for couples expecting a baby who wished to be married before birth of their child. Unfortunately, marriage would result in a loss of benefits at the exact time the new mother would be unable to work. We sought to address this marriage disincentive.
Framing the Legislation
In our experience, all elected officials want to help families and individuals in poverty. They desire all our citizens to be economically stable and prosperous, but they often have different ideas about how to make that happen. Our goal was to frame our bill in a way that showed a commitment to helping children live in stable, secure homes that lawmakers from both parties could champion.
To that end, we drafted a bill to create an 18-month window after marriage in which a new spouse’s income would not count when determining eligibility—a “honeymoon” period. This income disregard was modeled on an existing statute that addressed child support for children on MFIP. Due to constitutional concerns related to marriage incentive programs, we consciously chose to structure the bill in a way that would allow couples to choose to marry rather than reward those who married.
Making the Pitch
In seeking bill sponsors (and later other supporters), we spoke about the benefits of marriage to children and the challenges to couples that wanted to marry but knew the very real financial impact this would have on their families. We shared that the federal TANF Program, which is used to fund MFIP, specifically lists two marriage-related goals: to promote marriage and to reduce the number of children born out of wedlock.
We provided data from a joint American Enterprise Institute/Los Angeles Times study3 in which people in poverty were asked: “How often do you think unmarried adults chose not to get married to avoid losing welfare benefits?” Twenty-four percent of participants answered, “almost always,” and an additional 23% answered, “often.”
We also gave legislators highlighted copies of a 2009 study of the federal TANF program that showed participation in the TANF program had a negative effect on the probability of marriage, an effect that disappeared once participants moved off the program.4
In building strong bipartisan support for the legislation, we addressed some concerns along the way. For example, we made it clear that we were not judging single parents but instead creating a viable option for couples who wanted to be married. We also clarified that nothing in the bill would trap a parent in a relationship that was dangerous for the parent or children.
Our House author identified a concern we hadn’t anticipated—should the state allow continued participation in the MFIP program if a participant marries a middle or upper-class individual? We addressed this by amending the bill to include a cap on the income disregard, set at 275% of the Federal Poverty Guidelines, the standard used to determine whether pregnant women and children are eligible for Medicaid.
In both chambers, the bill passed unanimously and was included in an omnibus bill signed by our Governor. Ultimately, the bill had to be amended to provide an income disregard for 12 months instead of the original 18. This change was unfortunate given that, ideally, this honeymoon period would last two or three years. Despite this amendment, the new law will likely make a significant impact by removing an obstacle to marriage for low-income households in our state.511 Ranger 12308 Mens Size 7 Black Trail Running Athletic Shoes ZU-1508,Ariat Mens Cowboy Western Horse Boots-8W VGUC,Baffin Mens 80030000 Black/Red Rainboots Size 10 (290968)military Mens combat punk boots Mid Calf patent leather Strappy motorcycle shoes,Dakota Rigboss CT Leather FP w/Trufoam Liner Men's Black/Yellow Boot 10M,Justin Dark Marble Brown Leather Roper Cowboy Boots Mens Size 10 EE Style 3162,Man's/Woman's W10437 Wolverine Steel Toed Sneakers Reasonable price Online export store VariousABILENE Gray Shark Leather Cowboy Boots Mens Size 8.5 D Style 6852 USA,SUITSUPPLY Mens Sz 41 / 8 US Cordovan Brown Leather Chukka Ankle Boots ITALY,Baffin Mens Green Hunting Boots Size 10 (319264),@LIVRAISON GRATUITE@ CHAUSSURES LEE COOPER AKRON LOW TRAINERS HOMME 41 A 46,Men/Women WATERPROOF PROTECTIVE FOOTWEAR SLUSH BOOT RAINFAIR Fine workmanship Known for its good quality Fine wild,Sandro Moscolini Black Full Grain Leather Split Toe Ankle Boot Shoe Mens 10.5 DRockport Men's Wynstin Chelsea Boots Tobacco Brown Leather Size 9 M,Men Military Tactical Combat Desert Ankle Boots Hiking Outdoor Boots Shoes New@@Rebelde 5683 Black Leather Western Cowboy Boots Size 9,Men's Vintage Buckle Outdoor Snow Boots Round Toe Winter Warm Casual ShoesBritish Mens Pointed Toe Zippers High Top Brogue Casual Ankle Boots Shoes I458,MEN'S KNEE BOOTS, STEEL TOE TYPE, PVC UPPER MATERIAL, SIZE 7 (GR0039-2LMD5-WH08)winter new Mens round toe Warm Fur Lined Snow side zip Ankle Boots cotton shoes,Herman Survivors 8 US Vintage Steel Toe Ankle Work Boots USA Vibram Soles,Tactical Waterproof Hunting Boots Camouflage Shoes for Climbing Hiking M584,New Mens Texas Steer Kadmus 3 Soft Toe Swat Boot Style 03272 Black SWAT,NORTHWEST TERRITORY Thinsulate Men Hiking Boots Size 12 Brown,JUSTIN 3133 MENS 8.5 D BLACK KIPSKIN LEATHER ROUND TOE COWBOY BOOTS ROPERS,Steve Madden Nockdown Chelsea Boot - Men's Size 11D BrownDAKOTA Men's 557 8" Steel Toe CP HD3 Vibram Work Boots Black/Blue Size 10 WideMen Shoes Patent Leather Round Toe Thigh High British Style Thick Bottom Sbox14,Keen Mens Size 9.5 Work Boots Steel Toe Brown Leather Made In USA ASTM F2413-11,PROPET Cliff Walker ll Hiking Boots Waterproof Brown Shoes Size 8.5 EE Wide
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