Many discussions about safety-net programs tend to focus on financial cliffs—how the impact of getting a raise or working additional hours may make participants ineligible for the very benefits they need to move into economic stability. Marriage is rarely part of this discussion, even though numerous studies show marriage is an important tool for moving families out of poverty.1 That marriage is often absent from these discussions is especially ironic, since the promotion of family stability—by encouraging marriage and discouraging nonmarital births—was among the chief policy rationales for welfare reform in 1996.
After reviewing research stressing the importance of eliminating marriage penalties, we developed and successfully advocated for legislation that would create a “honeymoon” period for newly-married couples receiving assistance through Minnesota’s version of Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF). The legislation (HF 1453/SF 1165) received strong bipartisan support and was enacted by a Republican Legislature and Democratic Governor Mark Dayton in 2017. In our view, it represents the bi-partisan possibilities of enacting legislation based on the consensus that marriage is a vital tool for reducing poverty and fostering child well-being.
Crafting a Policy
Minnesota’s version of TANF is the Minnesota Family Investment Program (MFIP), which provides work support and cash assistance for children and their parents, who are often low wage workers between jobs. There has been no increase in the amount of the cash benefit to participants in over 30 years. Both of our organizations were involved in advocating for an increase.
As we talked with people of faith across our state, especially religious leaders, we kept hearing about couples who wanted to be married but couldn’t afford to make this decision because adding another adult to the family’s income would put them over the poverty threshold used to determine eligibility.2 The concerns were often strongest for couples expecting a baby who wished to be married before birth of their child. Unfortunately, marriage would result in a loss of benefits at the exact time the new mother would be unable to work. We sought to address this marriage disincentive.
Framing the Legislation
In our experience, all elected officials want to help families and individuals in poverty. They desire all our citizens to be economically stable and prosperous, but they often have different ideas about how to make that happen. Our goal was to frame our bill in a way that showed a commitment to helping children live in stable, secure homes that lawmakers from both parties could champion.
To that end, we drafted a bill to create an 18-month window after marriage in which a new spouse’s income would not count when determining eligibility—a “honeymoon” period. This income disregard was modeled on an existing statute that addressed child support for children on MFIP. Due to constitutional concerns related to marriage incentive programs, we consciously chose to structure the bill in a way that would allow couples to choose to marry rather than reward those who married.
Making the Pitch
In seeking bill sponsors (and later other supporters), we spoke about the benefits of marriage to children and the challenges to couples that wanted to marry but knew the very real financial impact this would have on their families. We shared that the federal TANF Program, which is used to fund MFIP, specifically lists two marriage-related goals: to promote marriage and to reduce the number of children born out of wedlock.
We provided data from a joint American Enterprise Institute/Los Angeles Times study3 in which people in poverty were asked: “How often do you think unmarried adults chose not to get married to avoid losing welfare benefits?” Twenty-four percent of participants answered, “almost always,” and an additional 23% answered, “often.”
We also gave legislators highlighted copies of a 2009 study of the federal TANF program that showed participation in the TANF program had a negative effect on the probability of marriage, an effect that disappeared once participants moved off the program.4
In building strong bipartisan support for the legislation, we addressed some concerns along the way. For example, we made it clear that we were not judging single parents but instead creating a viable option for couples who wanted to be married. We also clarified that nothing in the bill would trap a parent in a relationship that was dangerous for the parent or children.
Our House author identified a concern we hadn’t anticipated—should the state allow continued participation in the MFIP program if a participant marries a middle or upper-class individual? We addressed this by amending the bill to include a cap on the income disregard, set at 275% of the Federal Poverty Guidelines, the standard used to determine whether pregnant women and children are eligible for Medicaid.
In both chambers, the bill passed unanimously and was included in an omnibus bill signed by our Governor. Ultimately, the bill had to be amended to provide an income disregard for 12 months instead of the original 18. This change was unfortunate given that, ideally, this honeymoon period would last two or three years. Despite this amendment, the new law will likely make a significant impact by removing an obstacle to marriage for low-income households in our state.SELECT SHOP LOWTEX | Rakuten Global Market: KEEN WOMEN UNEEK Kean woman unique STORMY WEATHER/WROUGHT IRON 1019938Christian Louboutin Multi Color W/Zebra Print N 299 Trash 150 Platforms Size US 9.5 Regular (M, B),High Class Shoes Discount Shop Precious | Rakuten Global Market: Regal 03AR BD men shoes business shoes,Céline Black Delivery Running Sneaker Sneakers Size EU 40 (Approx. US 10) Narrow (Aa, N),Jimmy Choo Black Bea Pumps Size EU 39 (Approx. US 9) Regular (M, B),SELECT SHOP LOWTEX | Rakuten Global Market: KEEN MEN UNEEK O2 キーンメンユニークオーツー BRINDLE/BUNGEE CORD,BATH ONLINE SHOP | Rakuten Global Market: The stock sale of basic driving shoes of the CO37835-50 (stock sale) popularity! I send it earlier than order! fs3gm10P22Nov13,Christian Louboutin Blac Calamijane Boots/Booties Size US 8.5 Regular (M, B),Manolo Blahnik Brown Alligator Maripum - Pumps Size US 8 Regular (M, B),kaneka | Rakuten Global Market: Number 1! Rakuten ranking comfort shoes ★ 146 weeks No. 1 ranked ★ business shoes walking shoes leather leather shoes 4E men's shoes men's 5000 designo and designo 10P28oct13 P28oct13,Christian Louboutin Black Leather Daf 160 Mm Daffodil Ankle 39.5 Boots/Booties Size US 9.5 Regular (M, B),Valentino Burgundy Cage Rockstud 65mm Pumps Size EU 37 (Approx. US 7) Regular (M, B),Giuseppe Zanotti Pink Cruel Summer 110 Rosa Wing Strap Sandal Heel Pumps Size EU 39 (Approx. US 9) Regular (M, B),Valentino Rockstud Caged Pumps Size US 7,DOUBLEHEART | Rakuten Global Market: Honey me honey HONEY MI HONEY end of September reservation fur sandal fur sandals Lady's sandals fur flat 18a-ev-02,Shoes shop LEAD | Rakuten Global Market: Regal straight tip REGAL ● REGAL811R AL[B] straight tip men business shoes shoes,Christian Louboutin Black "Anjalina" 100mm 39eu Pumps Size US 9,Christian Louboutin Blac Ankle Boots/Booties Size US 8 Regular (M, B),Christian Louboutin Beige Karistrap 70 Camel Suede Ankle Strap Buckle Block Heel Combat Boots/Booties Size EU 36.5 (Approx. US 6.5) Regular (M, B),Giuseppe Zanotti Ice Sharon Crystal Platforms Size US 9.5 Regular (M, B),Christian Louboutin White Beloved Laser Cut Pumps Size US 10.5 Regular (M, B),TIGERS BROTHERS CO. LTD - FLISCO - | Rakuten Global Market: Hunter rain pumps HUNTER WFF1025RGL original quilting ballerina gross shoes [SK]PREMIUM ONE | Rakuten Global Market: Pure care product two points present red wing Beckman Instruments boots flat box black Klondike RED WING 9060 BECKMAN BOOTS FLAT BOX Black "Klondike" red wing domestic regular article,mischief | Rakuten Global Market: Converse Jack Purcell CONVERSE JACK PURCELL black monochrome (32260581),Christian Louboutin Pink Fuschia Suede Knot Peep Toe Platform Pumps Size US 9,SELECT SHOP LOWTEX | Rakuten Global Market: NIKE WMNS AIR MAX 95 Nike women Air Max 95 WHITE/WHITE/WHITE,Christian Louboutin Black Impera 100 Pvc Lazercut Eu 37.5 Pumps Size US 7,SELECT SHOP LOWTEX | Rakuten Global Market: NIKE AIR MAX 90 PRINT Kie Ney AMAX 90 print BLACK/BRIGHT CRIMSON/WHITEGianvito Rossi Navy/Black Fiona Boucle Boots/Booties Size EU 38 (Approx. US 8) Regular (M, B),SELECT SHOP LOWTEX | Rakuten Global Market: NIKE AIR MAX 95 PREMIUM Kie Ney AMAX 95 premium SAIL/DESERT SAND,
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