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|Seller Notes:||“A little discoloration and stickiness under right heel where price tag was removed.”|
|Color:||Black||Width:||Medium (B, M)|
|US Shoe Size (Women's):||US 10||Heel Height:||Med (1 3/4 in. to 2 3/4 in.)|
|EUR Shoe Size (Women's):||EUR 41||Country/Region of Manufacture:||Israel|
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Many discussions about safety-net programs tend to focus on financial cliffs—how the impact of getting a raise or working additional hours may make participants ineligible for the very benefits they need to move into economic stability. Marriage is rarely part of this discussion, even though numerous studies show marriage is an important tool for moving families out of poverty.1 That marriage is often absent from these discussions is especially ironic, since the promotion of family stability—by encouraging marriage and discouraging nonmarital births—was among the chief policy rationales for welfare reform in 1996.
After reviewing research stressing the importance of eliminating marriage penalties, we developed and successfully advocated for legislation that would create a “honeymoon” period for newly-married couples receiving assistance through Minnesota’s version of Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF). The legislation (HF 1453/SF 1165) received strong bipartisan support and was enacted by a Republican Legislature and Democratic Governor Mark Dayton in 2017. In our view, it represents the bi-partisan possibilities of enacting legislation based on the consensus that marriage is a vital tool for reducing poverty and fostering child well-being.
Crafting a Policy
Minnesota’s version of TANF is the Minnesota Family Investment Program (MFIP), which provides work support and cash assistance for children and their parents, who are often low wage workers between jobs. There has been no increase in the amount of the cash benefit to participants in over 30 years. Both of our organizations were involved in advocating for an increase.
As we talked with people of faith across our state, especially religious leaders, we kept hearing about couples who wanted to be married but couldn’t afford to make this decision because adding another adult to the family’s income would put them over the poverty threshold used to determine eligibility.2 The concerns were often strongest for couples expecting a baby who wished to be married before birth of their child. Unfortunately, marriage would result in a loss of benefits at the exact time the new mother would be unable to work. We sought to address this marriage disincentive.
Framing the Legislation
In our experience, all elected officials want to help families and individuals in poverty. They desire all our citizens to be economically stable and prosperous, but they often have different ideas about how to make that happen. Our goal was to frame our bill in a way that showed a commitment to helping children live in stable, secure homes that lawmakers from both parties could champion.
To that end, we drafted a bill to create an 18-month window after marriage in which a new spouse’s income would not count when determining eligibility—a “honeymoon” period. This income disregard was modeled on an existing statute that addressed child support for children on MFIP. Due to constitutional concerns related to marriage incentive programs, we consciously chose to structure the bill in a way that would allow couples to choose to marry rather than reward those who married.
Making the Pitch
In seeking bill sponsors (and later other supporters), we spoke about the benefits of marriage to children and the challenges to couples that wanted to marry but knew the very real financial impact this would have on their families. We shared that the federal TANF Program, which is used to fund MFIP, specifically lists two marriage-related goals: to promote marriage and to reduce the number of children born out of wedlock.
We provided data from a joint American Enterprise Institute/Los Angeles Times study3 in which people in poverty were asked: “How often do you think unmarried adults chose not to get married to avoid losing welfare benefits?” Twenty-four percent of participants answered, “almost always,” and an additional 23% answered, “often.”
We also gave legislators highlighted copies of a 2009 study of the federal TANF program that showed participation in the TANF program had a negative effect on the probability of marriage, an effect that disappeared once participants moved off the program.4
In building strong bipartisan support for the legislation, we addressed some concerns along the way. For example, we made it clear that we were not judging single parents but instead creating a viable option for couples who wanted to be married. We also clarified that nothing in the bill would trap a parent in a relationship that was dangerous for the parent or children.
Our House author identified a concern we hadn’t anticipated—should the state allow continued participation in the MFIP program if a participant marries a middle or upper-class individual? We addressed this by amending the bill to include a cap on the income disregard, set at 275% of the Federal Poverty Guidelines, the standard used to determine whether pregnant women and children are eligible for Medicaid.
In both chambers, the bill passed unanimously and was included in an omnibus bill signed by our Governor. Ultimately, the bill had to be amended to provide an income disregard for 12 months instead of the original 18. This change was unfortunate given that, ideally, this honeymoon period would last two or three years. Despite this amendment, the new law will likely make a significant impact by removing an obstacle to marriage for low-income households in our state.Ecco Black Patent Leather Bow Ballet Flats Women's Size 36 M*,WOMENS JIMMY CHOO GOLD SHIMMER BALLET LEATHER SHOES SIZE 36 1/2,Man's/Woman's Naught OffWhite FS/NY Flat Elegant appearance Make full use of materials Good quality,Delman White Leather Brown White Pony Hair Ballet Flats Loafers Women's 6 M,Arcopedico New Women's Francesca Oxford Black 37,Lacoste Women Flats Oxfords Gazon Slip-on Orange,Gabor Women's 64-169 Punched Detail Ballet FlatClarks Women's UN.LOOP Brown Leather Shoes 053448828194 (Stock),GENUINE BROWN CROCODILE LOAFERS, LEATHER SOLES AND HEELS, SIZE 6.5 , HANDMADE,Ivanka Trump Women's Pelinda Black Fabric/Super Fine Suede/by Thick 5 M US,Tory Burch Women's Espadrille Shoes Canvas Colorblock Espadrille Flat Shoes 9M,Anyi Lu 'Dora' Stone Metallic Ballet Flat US-6M EUR-36M MSRP $395,Twisted X Women's Distressed Leopard Driving Moccasin WDM0057 - SALE!,Merrell Petunia Wedge Shoes Vibram Moxie Outsole Shoes Brown or Black Sz 9.5 BN,SPERRY Top Sider Firefish Cheetah Loafer Slip-On Boat Shoes US 6.5 M NWB,Jack Rogers LOWELL Bone White Colorblock Tumbled Leather Moccasin Driver - 9 M,NEW In box Dolce Vita Fraser Flat Size 10Tod’s Brown & Lavender Driving Loafers Mocs Shoes Gorgeous Italy 8Bandolino Women's Liberty Black Leather Loafer 6.5 MDansko Belle Suede Women's Black Slip-on Comfort Support Sneakers Size 6.5 MMiu Miu Womens Shoes Size 36.5 6.5 Gray Solid Leather Flat Loafers Casual,Audra Black Suede Me Too Leather Ballerina FlatsEasy Spirit Women's Ezcool Clog Black 10 M US,CLARKS Women's Leisa Sadie Mule Navy Leather 9.5 W US,Topshop Nude Giftbow Slingback Shoes Flats SIZE UK5 EUR38 US7.5,Women's DANSKO "Mary Jane" black cherry patent leather shoes 38 (8 US) Marcelle,TOPSHOP LEOPARD SPOTTED LEATHER HIGH TOP FASHION SEXY CUT OUT SNEAKERS SHOES~38,Steve Madden Women's Kandi Slip-On Loafer, Floral Multi, 7 M US,NIB SANITA O2 COLLECTION LUXE REGAL LOAFERS COMFORT SHOES TAN BROWN SZ 37 6 6.5,New Sperry Angelfish Navy/Patch Women's Shoes, Size 7.5,
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